Lightweight, Zero-Dependency RSA and EC/ECDSA crypto for Node.js and Browsers
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README.md

@root/keypairs

Lightweight JavaScript RSA and ECDSA utils that work on Windows, Mac, and Linux using modern node.js APIs (no need for C compiler).

A thin wrapper around Eckles.js (ECDSA) and Rasha.js (RSA).

Features

  • Generate keypairs
    • RSA
    • ECDSA (P-256, P-384)
  • PEM-to-JWK (and SSH-to-JWK)
  • JWK-to-PEM (and JWK-to-SSH)
  • Create JWTs (and sign JWS)
  • SHA256 JWK Thumbprints
  • JWK fetching. See Keyfetch.js
    • OIDC
    • Auth0
  • CLI
  • Node
  • Browsers (Webpack >=5)

Progress

This is fully functional, but the re-usable code from ACME.js hasn't been fully teased out for the v2.0 release.

(SSH conversions have not yet made it to 2.0)

Usage

A brief introduction to the APIs:

// generate a new keypair as jwk
// (defaults to EC P-256 when no options are specified)
Keypairs.generate().then(function (pair) {
	console.log(pair.private);
	console.log(pair.public);
});
// JWK to PEM
// (supports various 'format' and 'encoding' options)
return Keypairs.export({ jwk: pair.private, format: 'pkcs8' }).then(function (
	pem
) {
	console.log(pem);
});
// PEM to JWK
return Keypairs.import({ pem: pem }).then(function (jwk) {
	console.log(jwk);
});
// Thumbprint a JWK (SHA256)
return Keypairs.thumbprint({ jwk: jwk }).then(function (thumb) {
	console.log(thumb);
});
// Sign a JWT (aka compact JWS)
return Keypairs.signJwt({
  jwk: pair.private
, iss: 'https://example.com'
, exp: '1h'
  // optional claims
, claims: {
  , sub: 'jon.doe@gmail.com'
  }
});

By default ECDSA keys will be used since they've had native support in node much longer than RSA has, and they're smaller, and faster to generate.

Webpack 5+ (for Browsers)

This package includes native browser versions of all special functions.

Since Webpack 5 now fully supports vanilla JavaScript and exclusive browser builds out-of-the-box, it's pretty easy to create a minimal config to use Keypairs in your browser projects:

webpack.config.js:

'use strict';

var path = require('path');

module.exports = {
	entry: './main.js',
	mode: 'development',
	devServer: {
		contentBase: path.join(__dirname, 'dist'),
		port: 3001
	},
	output: {
		publicPath: 'http://localhost:3001/'
	},
	module: {
		rules: [{}]
	},
	plugins: []
};

main.js:

'use strict';

var Keypairs = require('./keypairs.js');

Keypairs.generate().then(function (pair) {
	console.log(pair.private);
	console.log(pair.public);
});

index.html:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
	<body>
		<script src="./dist/main.js"></script>
	</body>
</html>
npm install --save-dev webpack@5
npx webpack
ls dist/

API Overview

  • generate (JWK)
  • parse (PEM)
  • parseOrGenerate (PEM to JWK)
  • import (PEM-to-JWK)
  • export (JWK-to-PEM, private or public)
  • publish (Private JWK to Public JWK)
  • thumbprint (JWK SHA256)
  • signJwt
  • signJws

Keypairs.generate(options)

Generates a public/private pair of JWKs as { private, public }

Option examples:

  • RSA { kty: 'RSA', modulusLength: 2048 }
  • ECDSA { kty: 'ECDSA', namedCurve: 'P-256' }

When no options are supplied EC P-256 (also known as prime256v1 and secp256r1) is used by default.

Keypairs.parse(options)

Parses either a JWK (encoded as JSON) or an x509 (encdode as PEM) and gives back the JWK representation.

Option Examples:

  • JWK { key: '{ "kty":"EC", ... }' }
  • PEM { key: '-----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----\n...' }
  • Public Key Only { key: '-----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----\n...', public: true }
  • Must Have Private Key { key: '-----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY-----\n...', private: true }

Example:

Keypairs.parse({ key: '...' }).catch(function (e) {
	// could not be parsed or was a public key
	console.warn(e);
	return Keypairs.generate();
});

Keypairs.parseOrGenerate({ key, throw, [generate opts]... })

Parses the key. Logs a warning on failure, marches on. (a shortcut for the above, with private: true)

Option Examples:

  • parse key if exist, otherwise generate { key: process.env["PRIVATE_KEY"] }
  • generated key curve { key: null, namedCurve: 'P-256' }
  • generated key modulus { key: null, modulusLength: 2048 }

Example:

Keypairs.parseOrGenerate({ key: process.env['PRIVATE_KEY'] }).then(function (
	pair
) {
	console.log(pair.public);
});

Great for when you have a set of shared keys for development and randomly generated keys in

Keypairs.import({ pem: '...' }

Takes a PEM in pretty much any format (PKCS1, SEC1, PKCS8, SPKI) and returns a JWK.

Keypairs.export(options)

Exports a JWK as a PEM.

Exports PEM in PKCS8 (private) or SPKI (public) by default.

Options

{ jwk: jwk
, public: true
, encoding: 'pem' // or 'der'
, format: 'pkcs8' // or 'ssh', 'pkcs1', 'sec1', 'spki'
}

Keypairs.publish({ jwk: jwk, exp: '3d', use: 'sig' })

Promises a public key that adheres to the OIDC and Auth0 spec (plus expiry), suitable to be published to a JWKs URL:

{ "kty": "EC"
, "crv": "P-256"
, "x": "..."
, "y": "..."
, "kid": "..."
, "use": "sig"
, "exp": 1552074208
}

In particular this adds "use" and "exp".

Keypairs.thumbprint({ jwk: jwk })

Promises a JWK-spec thumbprint: URL Base64-encoded sha256

Keypairs.signJwt({ jwk, header, claims })

Returns a JWT (otherwise known as a protected JWS in "compressed" format).

{ jwk: jwk
  // required claims
, iss: 'https://example.com'
, exp: '15m'
  // all optional claims
, claims: {
  }
}

Exp may be human readable duration (i.e. 1h, 15m, 30s) or a datetime in seconds.

Header defaults:

{ kid: thumbprint
, alg: 'xS256'
, typ: 'JWT'
}

Payload notes:

  • iat: now is added by default (set false to disable)
  • exp must be set (set false to disable)
  • iss should be the base URL for JWK lookup (i.e. via OIDC, Auth0)

Notes:

header is actually the JWS protected value, as all JWTs use protected headers (yay!) and claims are really the JWS payload.

Keypairs.signJws({ jwk, header, protected, payload })

This is provided for APIs like ACME (Let's Encrypt) that use uncompressed JWS (instead of JWT, which is compressed).

Options:

  • header not what you think. Leave undefined unless you need this for the spec you're following.
  • protected is the typical JWT-style header
    • kid and alg will be added by default (these are almost always required), set false explicitly to disable
  • payload can be JSON, a string, or even a buffer (which gets URL Base64 encoded)
    • you must set this to something, even if it's an empty string, object, or Buffer

Additional Documentation

Keypairs.js provides a 1-to-1 mapping to the Rasha.js and Eckles.js APIs for the following:

  • generate(options)
  • import({ pem: '---BEGIN...' })
  • export({ jwk: { kty: 'EC', ... })
  • thumbprint({ jwk: jwk })

If you want to know the algorithm-specific options that are available for those you'll want to take a look at the corresponding documentation:

Contributions

Did this project save you some time? Maybe make your day? Even save the day?

Please say "thanks" via Paypal or Patreon:

Where does your contribution go?

Root is a collection of experts who trust each other and enjoy working together on deep-tech, Indie Web projects.

Our goal is to operate as a sustainable community.

Your contributions - both in code and especially monetarily - help to not just this project, but also our broader work of projects that fuel the Indie Web.

Also, we chat on Keybase in #rootprojects

Commercial Support

Do you need...

  • more features?
  • bugfixes, on your timeline?
  • custom code, built by experts?
  • commercial support and licensing?

Contact aj@therootcompany.com for support options.

Legal

Copyright AJ ONeal, Root 2018-2019

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